Greater Nepal In Quest Of Boundary
Greater Nepal or Akhand Nepal, or Parajuli Empire are irredentist terms literally meaning "Undivided Nepal"
Greater Nepal is a concept of Nepal extending beyond its present boundaries to include present-day Indian territories controlled briefly by the Gurkha army after defeating some South Asian kingdoms in wars fought from 1791 to 1804 but ceded to the East India Company under the Sugauli Treaty (treaty for Partition of Nepal) after the Gurkha king was defeated in 1814–16 Anglo-Nepalese War. In 1813, the historical Greater Nepal extended from the Sutlej to the Tista, spanning 1500 kilometers. Rule over this expanse was brief, however, and in the aftermath of the 1814-1815 war with the East India Company, the Gorkhali realm was whittled down considerably. The real-time Gorkhali presence in Garhwal was for over a decade; Kumaon for 25 years; and Sikkim for 33 years. The Treaty of Sugauli, between the Gorkhali king and the Company, was ratified in 1816. It caused Nepal to lose about 105,000 km2 of territory and left Nepal as she is today, with 147,181 km2 of the present total area.
Ruler of a small Gorkha region of Nepal King Prithivi Narayan Shah decided to extend their territory. He defeated major principalities in wars and unified them under his rule starting from the 1740s ending with shifting of his Gorkha Kingdom’s capital from the Gorkha region to Kathmandu in 1769. He then attacked and absorbed dozens of other small principalities of Nepal area to his Gorkha kingdom followed by his sons Pratap Singh Shah and Bahadur Shah until 1794.
- Victory over Kumaon, Garhwal, and Kangra
- Victory over Sikkim and Darjeeling
After the victory over Kumaon, Garhwal, Kangra, Sikkim, and Darjeeling by the Gorkha Army, the war between Nepal and British East India Company ended with the defeat of Gurkhas. The dispute was because of no fixed boundary which leads Nepal forced to sign the Treaty of Sugauli on 2 December 1815 after the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16.
The East India Company had come to rule much of north India by the time the Gurkhas attacked kingdoms in South Asia. The Company became the de facto ruler of South Asia east of Satluj river in place of the Moghuls, Marathas and other kings, especially after defeating the Marathas in 1803 in Second Anglo-Maratha War. After firmly establishing its rule over Delhi in 1803, the Company attacked the Gorkhas and repulsed them from the Kumaon Kingdom and the Garhwal Kingdom in the area west of the Kali river and in Sikkim and North Bengal east of Teesta river by 1815. The Gorkhas were forced to accept a peace treaty with the British (the Sugauli Treaty) in 1816.
The people territories that were a part of the Gorkha Empire before the Sugauli Treaty consider themselves as Nepali and wish to be a part of Nepal. There have been critiques that the independent kingdoms which were occupied by Gorkhalis for less than 20 years and lost to the British, cannot be reclaimed.
There is not any official claim by the Government of Nepal or any political party of Nepal to take back the ceded territory to British East India Company by Nepal which is now the territory of the Republic of India.